Научный журнал

Study of the development prospects of the existing erosion process in the widespread mountain-brown soils of Gedebey region in the conditions of geographical relief

Aliev Z.H., Xalilov Z.M.

Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of ANAS (Azerbaijan, Baku)

 

Abstract. Complex natural-geographic and agro climatic conditions regions of the Republic, long and anthropogenic effects on the natural objects have led to the emergence and widespread erosion. currently, 43.3% of the land Republic affected by erosion. In the Republic developed all kinds of erosion, particularly irrigation water and wind. At the present stage of development of agriculture, widely implemented land reform. Ubiquitous privatized land, where at this point erosion control is a precondition for improving soil fertility, crop yields, requiring reference to global studies improve their fertility.

Key words: depth, topography, slope basis, terraces, erosion.

 

Выпуск

Год

Ссылка на статью

№1(21)

2021

Aliev Z.H., Xalilov Z.M. Study of the development prospects of the existing erosion process in the widespread mountain-brown soils of Gedebey region in the conditions of geographical relief // Видеонаука: сетевой журн. 2021. №1(21). URL: https://videonauka.ru/stati/23-tekhnologicheskie-protsessy/284-study-of-the-development-prospects-of-the-existing-erosion-process-in-the-widespread-mountain-brown-soils-of-gedebey-region-in-the-conditions-of-geographical-relief (дата обращения 1.07.2021).

 

Study of the development prospects of the existing erosion process in the widespread mountain-brown soils of Gedebey region in the conditions of geographical relief

 

Introduction

The main task facing the national ecologists and soil scientists of Azerbaijan is to study and evaluate the arable lands formed in the country on a scientific basis, to teach the next generation the methods and techniques of their effective use. At the beginning of the 21st century, the world's leading countries and organizations have held various forums and achieved positive results in order to protect their lands. At the III International Congress of the European Society for the Protection of Lands in Spain in 2010, land was considered as a component of the environment and attention was paid to the seriousness of land protection. Shortly afterwards, at the XVII Congress of the International Society of Soil Scientists in Thailand in 2012, a special scientific symposium was dedicated to the problem of "soil degradation in the face of the realities of the XXI century." In the spring of 2014, the International Environmental Forum "Let's Protect the Planet Earth" in St. Petersburg, Russia, discussed issues related to the ecological balance of the environment and its impact on soil biota. Cultivation of agricultural crops in all mountainous countries of the world, including Azerbaijan, is carried out in unfavorable areas with difficult terrain. It should be noted that about 60% of the country's territory consists of mountains and foothills. The impact and form of erosion on the ecological parameters of soils formed under the influence of different climatic types, air masses, as well as local natural-geographical conditions in areas where the composition of different relief elements is predominant is complex. As a result of anthropogenic and natural impacts on the soil each year, the risk of erosion increases, leading to a decrease in soil fertility and productivity. As a result of wind erosion, the absorption of finely dispersed particles in the topsoil leads to the destruction of the productive layer and, ultimately, to the weakening of the biological activity of the soil. The fact that the area of ​​arable land in our country is declining day by day and leaving the economic turnover is one of the main issues that will lead to the growth of food problems and food shortages in the future. Thus, in order to meet the food needs of every citizen in our country, 0.18-0.2 hectares of arable land is needed. According to the Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan No. 3004 dated August 25, 2008, the “State Program on reliable food supply of the population in the Republic of Azerbaijan for 2008-2015” was developed for the comprehensive development of agriculture. The issues arising from the provisions of this program include increasing the efficiency of land and water use. The program also envisages the identification and mapping of eroded, saline and other degraded lands, the development of proposals for the restoration of their fertility and their efficient use. There is no doubt that if the issues envisaged in the state program are resolved, the problem of increasing productivity, meeting the population's demand for grain, fruits and vegetables, creating a solid fodder base for livestock development and protecting the land cover will lead to economic growth. In Azerbaijan occupy large areas of summer pastures, forest, priselski pastures, where vegetation performs a huge role in protecting slopes from flushing and washout. Meanwhile on the summer pastures, forests and pastures to settlements pastures for under the influence of anthropogenic factors widespread erosion.

Work to combat erosion and mudflows in mountainous areas are of great economic importance. Erosion control should focus on the prevention and elimination of causes, because it is easier to prevent erosion, than to deal with its consequences.

Measures to combat soil erosion should be integrated, mixed organizational-economic, agro technical, reclamation, hydraulic techniques as well as techniques improve the fertility of eroded soils.

 The purpose of the research: In the 70s of the last century, researchers-scientists studied the area of erosion in the Gadabay region, compiled a soil-erosion map, developed various measures to combat erosion. Taking this into account, in 2014-2016 we used GIS technology to study the impact of erosion on the environment in both visual and stationary conditions in the fields of sowing and grazing in the areas of mountain black and mountain-brown soils in the northern part of the Gadabay region of the Lesser Caucasus. We considered it expedient to study the theoretical-practical, scientific bases through

The object and method research

Methodology of the research: Comparative geographical methods proposed by KA Alakbarov and SHG Hasanov were used in the research. The agrochemical and agrophysical properties of mountain-black and mountain-brown soils existing in the study area were studied by the following methods:

  1. According to the samples taken on genetic layers of granulometric composition, hygroscopic moisture, acidity, structure of soil;
  2. Soil field moisture was studied in 3 repetitions on the basis of soil samples taken at a depth of 0-50 cm (0-25 cm; 25-50 cm) and 0-100 cm (0-25 cm; 25-50 cm; 50-100 cm);
  3. The water permeability of the soil was studied in 3 repetitions with a specially prepared iron cylinder (h = 12 cm; d = 15 cm);
  4. Determination of humus in soil solution by IV Tyurin-Konovalova method;
  5. Determination of absorbed bases in the soil - by Ivanov's method;
  6. Soil acidity (pH) -potensiometric method;
  7. Determination of hygroscopic moisture in the soil by thermal method;
  8. Determination of structural and aggregate composition in the soil - by the method of NI Savvinov;
  9. Determination of granulometric composition in the soil - according to the scale proposed by RH Mammadov;
  10. Determination of mobile phosphorus in soil by Mesheryakova method;
  11. Determination of total nitrogen in the soil-Hedroyts method;
  12. By carbonate-Schebler method.

The depth of local bases of erosion. One of the most important factors contributing to the intensity of display of erosion processes is the depth of local bases of erosion that is celebrated in his writings, S.S.Sobolev (1948).

Describing the role of a relief of the erosion processes in the S.S. Sobolev (1948) wrote: "the terrain is the knell of erosion processes and at the same time itself changes under the influence of these processes. S.S.Sobolev (1948) indicates that under the same conditions with increasing depths of local bases of erosion in 4 times the rate of runoff increases in 2 times, and its destructive power about 4 times.[6]. The deeper local bases of erosion, the harder the surface water flows collapses, flowing watershed in ravines and rivers. This is due to the fact that the depth of local bases of erosion is mainly determined by the rate of runoff, which contributes to leachate may run off and erosion of soils.

Analysis of studies

Mapping the depths of local bases of erosion for the South-Eastern part of the Lesser Caucasus, us in a topographic basis, was composed of the same map at a scale of 1:50000. As local bases of erosion River were taken:-Kuruçay, Kozluchaj, Chajlag, Kendelenchaj, Kichik Akara, with their streams, valleys and gullies, as well as scale was adopted as follows: 50; 50-100; 100-150; 150-200; 200-250; 250-300; 300-400; 400-500; more than 500 meters.[2,5]

Research progress and analysis of results:

From the compiled map shows that in the southeastern part of minor Caucasus depth of erosion varies from 50 to 500 m, and sometimes more. Area of plots with a depth of 50 m erosion of  3677.5 hectares or 5.20%, 50-200 m-27702.5 ha or 39.19%, 200-400 m-27564.5 ha or 39.00% and over 400 m-11742.5 ha or 16.61% of the total land area [table 1].

                                                                          Table 1

The distribution area in depth local bases of erosion

NO.

Area highlights

Group of gradations,             m

Area groups

in ha

in%

in ha

in%

1

3677.5

5.20

0-50

3677.5

5.20

2

8362.5

11.83

3

8980.0

12.70

50-200

27702.5

39.19

4

10360.0

14.66

5

9702.5

13.73

6

8494.5

12.02

200-400

27564.5

39.00

7

9367.5

13.25

8

7440.0

10.52

400

11742.5

16.61

9

4302.5

6.09

70687.0

100

70687.0

100

Studies have shown that where there is a depth of local bases, erosion occurs more intensively. As noted by S.S. Sobolev [1948] "the deeper local bases erosion, i.e. the higher is the watershed above the River, there's more destructive streams flowing from these watersheds in ravines and rivers.[1,6] Weighted average depth of local bases erosion research facility is 240 m, i.e. the territory itself is potentially erosion-hazardous.

 

The inclination of the surface: An important factor influencing the manifestation and the development of erosion processes is the slope of the surface.

S.A., Sobolev [1948] noted that water erosion causes soil increases as the steepness of the slopes, and at the same time reducing the incline from0 to 11 40 smytoj quantity of the soil decreases from 36 m3/ha up to 5 m3/ha.[6]K.A. Alekperov and A.b. Agayev [1965] indicate that the fallen with a slope of 80 smytoj quantity of soil is 65 m3/ha, while the slope of 150 it reaches 183 m3/ha.[1,4]

According to B.H. Aliyev [1996], with a slope of 100 flush the soil with 1 ha was 220-240 t/ha, while the slope 170 achieves 320-410 t/ha.In view of the foregoing, we deemed it appropriate to make a on the topographic map based on slope surface of the South-Eastern part of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the 1:50000 scale. If this had been taken following graduation grade: 30; 3-5; 5-7; 7-10; 10-15; 15-20; 20-25; 25-30; 30-45 and over 450 [tab. 2].

In doing so, it turned out that the investigated area slope ranges from0 to 3 450, and sometimes more.A large variety of steepness of slopes affect the intensity of erosion processes.

Calculations show that slopes slope less than 50where erosive processes manifested very little, occupy only 6565.0 hectares or 9.29% of total land area.

                                                                                               Table 2

Distribution of slope surface

NO.

Inclination in degrees

Area highlights

Group graduation, degrees

Area groups

in ha

in%

in ha

in%

1

0-3

2412,5

3,41

0-5

6565,0

9,28

2

3-5

4152,5

5,87

3

5-7

5180,0

7,32

4

7-10

3907,5

5,53

5-15

17227,5

24,37

5

10-15

8140,0

11,52

6

15-20

12415,0

17,56

7

20-25

11942,5

16,90

15-30

36457,5

51,58

8

25-30

12100,0

17,12

9

30-45

7835,0

11,09

10

> 45

2602,0

3,68

> 30

10437,5

14,77

Total:

70687.0

100

70687.0

100

 

Slopes slope from 5 to 150 make up 17227.5 hectares or 24.37% of the whole territory and are erosion-hazardous slope from 15-300 make up quite a large area of 36457.5 hectares or 51.58% and low mountainous, mountain and Alpine areas. Here erosion processes are evident everywhere.

Slopes steepness of the 300 constitute 10437.0 hectares or 14.77% of the total area and are found in mountain and highland areas. Such sites are considered the most susceptible soils because erozionnoopasnymi erosion greatly, and there are also exits of rocks and rock outcrops.

Weighted average slope surface is 200, which in turn already defines threat of intensive development of erosion.

The role of exposure in the development of erosion.

In the manifestation and intensity of erosive process is more important w 1st role plays Exposition. Observations show that the mountain-meadow, mountain forest and mountain-farming territory areas, slopes of South, Southeast and Southwest exposure most heavily affected by erosion.

In mountain areas have significant agro-climatic differences due to difficult terrain.

For the southern slopes are known to have the biggest and annual amplitude of temperature, accelerating the process of weathering of soils and weakening their resistance to erosion.Especially in summer, when the southern slopes are heavily. [3,4]

As a result of the combined effect of all these factors, erosive processes develop very intensively, the soil becomes shallow, skeletal, and the plant loses its desirable stronger than on the northern slopes, causing in turn even more intensive development of surface runoff and soil flushing. And this is due to the fact that in mountainous snow accumulation, snowmelt, the degree of soil moisture, density of standing vegetation etc. depend on the exposure.

According to B.H.Aliyev and Z.H.Aliyev [1996], flush the soil with 1 hectares on the flank of  the  Northern exposure was 75.6 m3, and on the slope of the southern exposure 134.6 m3.In view of the above, the US has been formulated on the basis of the topographical map of the exposition in the scale 1:50000, emitting the following exposures: North; North East; North West; East; South; South East; South-Western and Western.[1,2]

As can be seen from table 3 data slopes North Exposition 5410.0 hectares or 7.65% of the total land area, while the North group is 30440.0 hectares or 43.05%. It should be noted that the erosion processes on these groups developed on those sites where work is carried out Forest reclamation violated overgrazing to settlements pastures for summer pastures and pastures, as well as not executed agro technical measures in agricultural zone. Relatively large area occupied by slopes of South, Southeast and Southwest exposure.

Southern Exposure slopes area is 5445.0 hectares, or 7.70%, while the Southern Group occupies 34362.0 ha or 48.65% of total land area. On these slopes in connection with great dryness and underdevelopment of vegetation soils heavily affected by leachate may run off.

A small area occupied by the eastern slopes Exposition 2570.0 hectares or 3.63% of the total area and, mainly, flush the soil in these areas is evident in the weak and moderate. Western slopes Exposition 3315.0 hectares or 4.68% of the total area. [3]. Here flush soils developed in weak degree.

 

THE RESULTS.

In the formation and development of erosion process the depth of erosion tercitorial: 0-50(mm), 50-100(mm), 100-150(mm), 150-200(mm), 200-250(mm), 250-300(mm), 300-400(mm), 400-500(mm) and 500(mm). Along with geological and geomorphological structure depth of erosion territorial sole, inclination of the surface area also makes a great impact on the erosion process the surface inclination of area plays an important role in the formation and development of erosion process. 0-30; 3-50; 5-70; 7-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-45, > 450.Similarly by the increace of inclination of slopes the intensity of formation and development of erosion process like rises in the formation process, the ground the slopes have great influence on the formation process of erosion and intensity. Regearch Conducted showed that in comparison with north, north west slopes, the south, south-west and south-east slopes are more exposed to erosion.

LITERARY SOURCES

[1] Aliyev B.H: Problems of Geology and Hydrogeology of Apsheron Baku. 2000

[2] B.H Aliev, Z.H.Aliev Irrigated agriculture in the mountain and foothill regions of Azerbaijan. Monograph Publishing house "Nurlan Ziya EPG Ltd", Baku, 2003. 330 p.

[3] Aliev B. H, Aliev Z. H and others Techniques and technology few intensive irrigations in condition of the mountain region of Azerbaijan. Publishers "Elm", Baku, 1999, p. 220.

[4] Alekperov K.A. - Erosion of the Azerbaijan SSR and the fight against it. Baku, 1961.

[5] Alekperov KA., Agayev A.B.-the main signs of soil erosion in Lerik region and measures to combat it. "Tr. The Erosion Sector. " Ed. RU. Azeri. SSR. Baku, 1965.

[6] Мишев Д. Дистанционные исследования Земли из космоса. (перевод с болгарского)  Москва, Изд. «Мир», 1985, 287 стр.

[8] Молчанов А.А. Гидрологическая роль леса. Изд. АН ССР. Москва, 1960, 169 стр.

[9] Молчанов А.А. Лес и климат. Изд. «АН ССР». Москва, 1962, 127 стр.

[10] Насибов И.М. Распространение эрозии почв в Кусарском районе Азербайджанской ССР. Труды Сектора Эрозии, том III. Баку, Изд-во «АН Азерб.ССР», 1965, стр. 147-152.

[11] S.S.Sobolev-development of erosion processes in the European part of the USSR and fight with them. RU. The USSR m. 1948.

[12] Соловей Т.В, Алиев З.Г. Пространственный анализ с использованием инструментария геоинформационных систем. Учебное пособие. Изд. ITP. Польша, 2012, 95 стр.

[13] Сулейманов Т.И. Тематическая интерпретация дистанционных данных почвенно-растительных объектов. Баку, Изд. «Элм», 2003, 176 стр.

[14] Фигуровский И.В. Климатическое районирование Азербайджана. Материалы по районированию Азербайджанской ССР, 1926, Баку, 107 стр.

[15] Черенев Г.А. Об использовании космической информации в почвенно-эрозионных съемках. Сб.«Совершенствование мер борьбы с водной эрозией». Москва, 1977, 67 стр.

[16] Шакури Б.К. Изменение горных черноземов под влиянием эрозионных процессов. Вестник сельскохозяйственной науки, № 4, 1989, 24-31 стр.

[17] Scull P., Franklin J., Chadwick O.A., 2005, The application of classification tree analysis to soil type prediction in a desert landscape, Ecological Modeling, p. 181-185

[18] Turner M. G. 1989, Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20, p. 171-197                                                                                                    

[19] URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Artificial satellites_orbiting_Earth

[21] Landsat Missions. URL:http://landsat.usgs.gov/products_productinformation.php

[22] EarthExplorer. URL: http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov

 

Authors:

 Aliev foto

d-r., prof. Aliev Zakir Huseyn oglu -

Director of Institute of Erosion and Irrigation of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences

Dr. Z.M.Xalilov

Информация о журнале

Сетевое издание «Видеонаука»

Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 62708

(выдано Роскомнадзором 10 августа 2015 года)

ISSN 2499-9849

Учредитель: Гнусин Павел Игоревич

Главный редактор: Кокцинская Е.М.

6+

Контакты редакции

Адрес: Челябинская обл., г. Озерск, ул. Лесохим, д. 56

E-mail: journal@videonauka.ru

Телефон: +7 (921) 885-05-89

Skype: videonauka

Viber: +7 (921) 885-05-89

Подписка на новости

ВКонтакте  Facebook  Twitter  Youtube  Instagram

Нажимая кнопку "Подписаться" вы выражаете свое согласие на обработку персональных данных