State of the study of soil moisture for obtaining environmentally friendly agricultural products in Azerbaijan
d-r., prof. Z.H. Aliev
Institute of Erosion and Irrigation of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (Azerbaijan, Baku)
Abstract. The current information on moisture and the temperature of the ground in managerial system by production to agricultural product necessary, in the first place, for taking the operative decisions at development ecological pure technology irrigation under growing agricultural cultures to achieve the maximum harvest.
Key words: aerospace methods, moisture, moisture test, arable, soil, ecology, humidity, boer, calibration.
Ссылка на статью
Aliev Z.H. State of the study of soil moisture for obtaining environmentally friendly agricultural products in Azerbaijan // Видеонаука: сетевой журн. 2017. №1(5). URL: https://videonauka.ru/stati/13-tekhnicheskie-nauki/100-state-of-the-study-of-soil-moisture-for-obtaining-environmentally-friendly-agricultural-products-in-azerbaijan (дата обращения 3.04.2017).
State of the study of soil moisture for obtaining environmentally friendly agricultural products in Azerbaijan
The increasing growing of the population in republic puts the problems, for example, including product agricultural production.
The known that in Azerbaijan, as from 50-s years past centuries in broad scale is realized irrigation - ameliorative construction, which has got the big range after 70-s years. The year for year was increased rates water economy construction.
As a result this:
- irrigated area increased from 1200 thousands ha to 1400 thousands ha;
- total water intake increased by 9,8 mln. m3;
- an area, engulfed collector-drainage by network bringing before 400 thousands ha; (opening collector-drainage network - 273,0; closing - 115,0; and vertical drainage before 5).
Noticeably increased the harvest of the agricultural cultures, so for instance: cotton - 30,8 hwt/hа; corn - 24,7 hwt /ha and vegetables -204 hwt /hа. Alongside with reached success in water economy construction, in prospect follows to execute the following ameliorative of the action:
- a reconstruction to irrigation network in separate region of the republic;
- an improvement ameliorative conditions of the grounds:
- increasing water provides agricultural cultures;
- a ground planning;
- a construction small reservoirs;
- a development and broad introducing the water protect systems with few intensive technology and technologies of the irrigation agricultural cultures;
-a mastering (for necessities agricultural production) of the additional areas, by introduction of mountain-irrigated husbandries;
- a realization of mechanization and automation of the process of the irrigation agricultural cultures and etc.
- using the progressive methods and technical facilities of the condition study of ground and receptions express-measurements agroameliorative parameter and others (including aerospace measurement)
- an introduction to enabling technologies on production of the ecological pure product and increasing to productivities
Follows to note that efficiency of the use progressive water protect technologies of the irrigation and the further his developments in republic is to develop and introduce in production the most latest achievements national and foreign science, technology and leading experience in purpose of the provision high rate production and increasing to their cost-performance, all measured of the growing to capacity of the labour, culture level increasing of the husbandry, best use the production assets, improvements quality irrigation of the work and increasing to reliability of the applicable technology.
In connection with growth contamination surrounding ambiences, appears the problem of the reception of ecological pure product agricultural production. For this full information will be needed about condition of ground, fruitfulness, intensities of the contamination of ground chemical element, pesticides, radio nuclides etc., as well as dependency of this contamination from hydrometeorology conditions because ground is the main natural facility production of food. Moisture and temperature of the ground are one of the main physical ground characteristic which define their fruitfulness. Without presence necessary (required) amount water in ground and corresponding to temperature agricultural cultures do not sprout in general. Moisture of ground influences upon dissolve, displacement and efficiency organic and mineral fertilizers, on degree of the contamination of ground pesticides and the other product techniques origins how much agricultural plants will adopt harmful for people health chemists. The current information on moisture and the temperature of the ground in managerial system by production to agricultural product necessary, in the first place, for taking the operative decisions at development ecological pure technology irrigation under growing agricultural cultures to achieve the maximum harvest.
There are a review of technological decisions (so for instance, agrotechnique actions) in questions of main and presowing processing of ground, practicability and periods of the sowing agricultural cultures, rates and periods irrigation and contributing the mineral fertilizers etc.
However management, science, manufacturing have not full operative information on moisture of ground through lack of the necessary methods and technical facilities of their reception in branches agricultural production country.
Besides, most exactly and operative information can get on moisture and the temperature of the ground by means of artificial satellite, but this information is limited only by surface of the land or several centimeters upper layer ground. And cosmos data are necessary to be recognized.
But this signifies necessary graduate sensors artificial satellites For this there is necessary to have a reliable overland express-methods and technical facilities of the reception to information on moisture and temperature of the ground. Such methods of the facility must provide the reception to information in deep cut (though, on depth lied root system of the plants) and area agricultural fields.
The most known method of the reception given about moisture of ground from her surfaces before depth 100-150 sm, layer through each 10 sm, is thermostat-weight (TW) method. He presents the possibility to get data about moisture of ground for the whole depth of plant roots. This gives it an advantage before aerospace methods in objective information in some definite point of agricultural fields. But if the question is relative surface moistening of the whole field, that here already TW method, as well as any other above-ground method, can not be competed with aerospace methods and facility of the information reception.
Also TW-method has a row defect, which do not promote that to use his as standard at graduation above-ground and aerospace instrument.
Besides, time of measurements to moisture of ground forms 1,5-2 days. This brings to delay of important technological decisions, because of significant downfalls or hot dry wind moisture ground can significantly change for this time. Though improvement developments and introduction high-speed express-instrument of moisture of ground was made many experiments.
However offered instruments (including neutron moisture meter VNP-1, "Agro tester", high frequency moisture measure soil sample SVP-5, meter of ground parametersVPG-1 and others) have not found wide using because of following objective reasons. So for instance: using VNP-1 requires installation on floor plant around pipes (metallic or plastic), which disturbes the middle row to processing plowing cultures.
High frequency moisture measure SVCH-5 is not capable completely to change TW-method since for selection soil sample is used soil boer. The most adapting to condition of the use in agricultures "Agro tester" and VPG-1. Both instruments have a portable sensor-boer, to which connect the measuring block, but after measurements sensor and meter delete from field.
"Agro tester" does not withstand field tests even with inaccuracy measurements, in base with the method of the measurement of the complex resistance of ground in alternative electric field (so-called conduct meter method). Here sensors of the instrument are made thereby that two round spiral to blades serves and facility of the submersion of the sensor on given depth and facility of the measurement i.e. capacitor with ground between electrodes.
But instrument VPG-1 shows comparatively acceptable results and is recommended to introduction on hydrometeorology station country C.I.S. as far back as 80-90. But it also did not find wide using For determination of moisture of ground on evidences VPG-1 is used not simple methods. For indication of the evidences of the instrument is used microampere measure instrument which is inexact, easy damaged in field condition. For wide using VPG-1 it was necessary consolidate the design of the sensor, simplify the methods graduation and measurements, but in measuring block to use more reliable and more exact digital indication of the evidences of the instrument.
The purpose of the removal defect in 2001 this design was modified on VPG-4C which has exceeded TW-method on all factors, in that power and on accuracy given about moisture of ground on separate agriculture field (the ground). The standard deviation herewith from given thermostat-weight of the method for VPG-4C formed 1,5 %. This on 0,5% more exactly, than shows VNP-1 and on 1,0% more exactly VPG-1.
But obtain this manages due to the fact that in process of the measurement to moisture applying new way measurements to electric capacity and moisture. Relies on that main way of the reception most external evidence about moisture of ground, in the opinion of many researchers, is TW-method.
However herewith, as a rule, do not take into account that probe methods does not display on measured space field level to moisture therefore that moisture of ground is defined not 10-sm layer of the whole field, occupied concrete agriculture by culture, but in that sample of ground only, which is selected for analysis in 40-50 gr aluminum bank.
instrument VPG-4C measures moisture in volume of ground, which reminds the form of the cylinder, height 10 sm and diameter 60 sm, but this was test by weight, beside 40-50 kg dry mass. It must be assumed that similar defect photo optics moisture measure soil sample and portable IK- moisture measure IRMM-106. To use both instruments for measurement of moisture necessary to take out the tests by soil boer. More over these tests of the insufficient volume.
The advantage VPG-4C is concluded in its possibility also to measure and the temperature of the ground. The particularity of this method is concluded, that that he more sensitive to capacitive forming complex electroconductivity ground, than all known its predecessors.
It is necessary to note, at present time in facilities and institutions of the agricultural profile leads stale work, directed on collection, processing, conservation and transmission to information on surrounding ambience, condition of ground, plants etc. that requires the material expenses and big manual labour, which brings about essential fascination of the cost to information.
The wide automation of the agricultural work with using of modern computer technology has allowed amounts of the manual works, but reduce the cost of information and that it is very important perfects its quality and operation time.
Foreign remote points exist as production of the finish company "Vaysal", automated weather station general Israel - American production and automated meteorological station NPO "Agate" and others. But no one of considered systems not completely answers the problem and requirements agrometeorology since does not offer the real sensor for measurement of moisture of ground, without which automation of the measurements is few effective.
The necessary development and introduction automated measuring systems for collection, processing, keeping and transmissions of information about condition of ground, are connected with decision of the complex of the problems. The most important is a measurement of moisture spare dynamics in ground. But without decision of the problems of the creation exact measure sensor to moisture of ground all deal to automations measurement other parameter of ground in agroamelioration, as particularly important for conditions of the mountain husbandry in region really will be few effective.
At presence sensor to moisture of ground already become important also sensors of the temperature, density, acidity and others parameter of ground.
The wide automation of the measurements agroameliorative parameter of ground can precede creation and introduction regional remote agrometeorology information-reference points, which allow to feel the sensors and measuring systems, process the material for the reason reduction of labour and cost to source information about condition of ground. It must be assumed that here in after state of working these points, possible easy automates with infrastructure observant meteorological zonal station.
As a result of searching for the decisions of the problems became known that NPO "Selta", NPO "Agate", ANAKA AN ARE, have comprised of kit of its system project meter to moisture of ground with using the perspective method infrared (IK) spectroscopy. However if take even fine film of ground by thickness several microns, it is absolutely impervious for IK- rays.
Possible using the approach, founded on reflection IK- rays, but this approach it does not research enough now.
Really method IK spectroscopy possible to use not only for determination of the contents of the miscellaneous material in composition mixture, but also in all cases for determination other necessary parameters, also can be used variant of the Transmission IK- rays through investigation object.
Besides method IK- spectroscopy, pertains to more expensive and suitable to laboratory studies, rather then for development field express-instrument and automated remote device of the measurement of moisture of ground. So is considered reasonable acceptance in attention of the own opinions of the row scientist.
The results of the analysis of these studies prove that no united thought comparatively principle of the building automated measuring systems in agrometeorology not only, but also in whole hydrometeorology.
The most perfect, for methods and facilities of the automatic checking hydroameliorative parameter, on our opinion is a finish company "Vaysal", which offers the consumer certain automatic system for observation for condition many element weathers on the base specialized (meteorological) of the computer. However system of the company "Vaysal" is "locked" i.e. without special meteorological computer sensors of the company can be not used.
Besides, for the reason decisions of the similar problems, UKRNIGMI was designed automatic system of the checking parameter ground, which on many sign broader possibilities dominates the similar development of the company "Vaysal".
Since proposed UKRNIGMI system is open for any sensor and can be straight connected to computer network through standard relationship without additional connecting device.
The system will allow simultaneously to remove and send data from big amount sensor on distance before 10 km by means of cable and before 100 km and more with use the facility radio system. Besides graduation parameters sensor is provided bring in memory PC beforehand for constant keeping and remove data with 200-300 sensors for 1 second, rather then enter them before measurement by means of each separate sensor, what the company "Vaysal" offers.
The authors offer, for completing automated agrometeorology of the point sensors and measuring device (the own production) with the following parameter:
- moisture of the air (range 25-100%, at temperature from -4 before +500C)
- moisture of ground (range 4-40%, at temperature from 0 before +500С)
- a temperature of the air (the range from -50 before + 500 C);
- a temperature of ground (the range from -25 before + 500C);
- an photosynthetic to active radiation of the FAR (the range 0,38-0,70 maM) and other.
On description of the developer these sensors and functional converters "signal-voltage" is universal i.e. it for using suitable, as in automated measuring system, so and in separate discrete instrument. Except sensor of moisture and the temperature of ground, sensor of the temperature and moisture of the air, sensor of the FAR automated agrometeorology point (AAP-1) includes many-server analog-digital converter united with computer by cable, or through radio link. Computer provides processing and keeping agrometeorology to information. Base AAP-1 is completed by 16 sensors.
Kit AAP-1 includes sensors to moisture of ground for depths 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 sm (5 piece), sensors of the temperature of the ground for depths 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 sm (5 piece), sensors to moisture of the air (2 piece), sensors of the temperature of the air (2 piece) and sensors for measurement total and photosynthetic to active solar radiation (the FAR) - 2 piece.
Depending on request of the consumers amount channel can be increased before 64 and more for connection any amount sensor. This will not disturb work AAP since speed his that allows "to interview" 200-300 sensors for 1 seconds.
Alongside with foregoing methods, and exists the aerospace methods of the determination to moisture and temperature of ground.
On result called on by us analysis patent and research literature, denoted aerospace method of the checking the condition to surfaces of the land, in particular vegetation and ground gives the basis becomes firmly established that at development of the methods of such checking overland method and facility of the checking is conducted little attention.
Designed in this direction of the models of the estimation of the condition of the distance of the plants and ground on satellite data, which are based on law optometrists mainly, thermodynamics and other physical law, will always require experimental check in overland condition. For this necessary reliable overland network of the checking condition plants and ground. However, herewith appear very complex and however, massive problems, connected with particularity aerospace and overland methods.
The first particularity: much differ the separate ability (the area incidence) object aerospace sensor and overland facility. So if sensors companion land cover the area to terrestrial surface, which has a form by diameter from group of ten of the meters to several kilometers, that thermostats - weight method can characterize the wad of the ground by diameter 3-4 sm, in the same time sensors VPG- 4 C act in field, which has a form with diameter 60 sm and more. Relies on that if for cosmic sensor for separate ability to take the circle by diameter 10 ha, that volume of the sample for moisture to surfaces of ground for sensor satellite will form 7,85*107 sm2, for VPG-4C - 2,826*103 sm2, but for TW-method - only 7,1 sm2. There is one way to take into account this particularity, this is increase on area of the number of the repetitions of the measurements instrument VPG-4C and, especially, determinations to moisture of ground TW-method. On the other hand, by means of aerospace methods it is impossible to get sharing the temperature and moisture of ground on depth before 1-1,5 m. In this case they can not change the overland facilities of the reception of information on moisture and temperature of the ground.
The second particularity: aerospace data, as a rule, do not comply with overland at time and space. The known that path companion often does not comply with location existing network hydrometeorology station and points, which lead the overland observations for condition of atmosphere, plants and ground. The periods agrometeorology observations also, chalice whole, do not comply with current of time of the passing artificial satellite on location station and points. To take into account this particularity there are two ways:
1) if well studied microclimate to particularities of the territory daily move agrometeorology of the factors, it is necessary to enter the corresponding to adjustments in data overland observations.
2) on route of the passing of the artificial satellite beforehand to place the mobile agrometeorology points with increased the frequency of (than on hidrometeorology station) period of the observations. Such points allows not only more exactly fasten the overland observations to aerospace data, but can serve new, very efficient technical base for microclimate of the studies of the territory.
The third particularity: different physical principles prescribed in base overland and aerospace facilities of the measurement. In aerospace method and facility of the measurement are used several ways of the measurement parameter laying under surfaces of the land. This registration reflected radiation in seen part spectrum, in infrared (IK) range and in radio-frequency radio diapason, as well as fixation natural gamma-radiations to surfaces of the land. In instrument VPG-4C applying conduct meter way of the measurement to capacities of ground in variable electric current. TW-method is founded on weight drying and determination amount vaporized water. Each of three above mention methods has their own advantages and defects. The advantage of the aerospace methods consists in therefore that they high-speed and cover the greater territory. But they else have a defect in that that by means of their it is impossible get distribution an agrometeorology factors in deep cut before 1-1,5 m that that there is advantage of the overland facilities. The instrument VPG-4C has that superiority before TW-method that he characterizes the test of ground by volume 28 liters, but TW-method -only 22 milliliters. TW-method except named above defect has its main advantage over VPG-4C and aerospace methods. Its advantage consists in that that it is a direct method and serves the facility graduation, both soils moisture meter, and aerospace facilities measurement to moisture of ground. However attempt graduation cosmic sensors only by means of TW-method can be unsuccessful unless use VPG-4C as intermediate facility.
There by, necessary such correlation in using of all this methods for possibillity of getting the most objective information about moisture of ground.
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d-r., prof. Aliev Zakir Huseyn oglu -
Director of Institute of Erosion and Irrigation of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences